Other Common Labs
GLUCOSE, IRON, LIPIDS, PROTEIN, NITROGENS, ELECTROLYTES
Glucose, formed by the digestion of carbohydrates and the conversion of glycogen by the liver is the primary source of energy for most cells. It is regulated by insulin, glucagon, thyroid hormone, liver enzymes and adrenal hormones. It is elevated in diabetes, liver disease, obesity, pancreatitis, steroids, stress, or diet. Low levels may be indicative of liver disease, overproduction of insulin, hypothyroidism, or alcoholism.
Iron is necessary for the formation of some proteins, hemoglobin, myoglobin, and cytochrome. Also it is necessary for oxygen transport, cellular respiration and peroxide deactivation. Low levels are seen in many anemias, copper deficiencies, low vitamin C intake, liver disease, chronic infections, high calcium intake and women with heavy menstrual flows. High levels are seen in hemochromitosis, liver damage, pernicious anemia and hemolytic anemia.
Cholesterol is a critical fat that is a structural component of cell membrane and plasma lipoproteins, and is important in the synthesis of steroid hormones, glucocorticoids, and bile acids. Mostly synthesized in the liver, some is absorbed through the diet, especially one high in saturated fats. High density lipoproteins (HDL) is desired as opposed to the low density lipoproteins (LDL), two types of cholesterol. Elevated cholesterol has been seen in artherosclerosis, diabetes, hypothyroidism and pregnancy. Low levels are seen in depression, malnutrition, liver insufficiency, malignancies, anemia and infection.
Triglycerides, stored in adipose tissues as glycerol, fatty acids and monoglyceroids, are reconverted as triglycerides by the liver. Ninety percent of the dietary intake and 95% of the fat stored in tissues are triglycerides. Increased levels may be present in artherosclerosis, hypothyroidism, liver disease, pancreatitis, myocardial infarction, metabolic disorders, toxemia, and nephrotic syndrome. Decreased levels may be present in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, brain infarction, hyperthyroidism, malnutrition, and malabsorption.
LDL (Low Density Lipoprotein)
LDL is the cholesterol rich remnants of the lipid transport vehicle VLDL (very-low density lipoproteins) there have been many studies to correlate the association between high levels of LDL and arterial artherosclerosis. Due to the expense of direct measurement of LDL a calculation, known as the Friedewald formula is used. It is Total Cholesterol - HDL Cholesterol - Triglycerides/5. When triglyceride levels are greater than 400, this method is not accurate.
HDL (High Density Lipoprotein)
HDL or High-density lipoprotein is the cholesterol carried by the alpha lipoproteins. A high level of HDL is an indication of a healthy metabolic system if there is no sign of liver disease or intoxication. the two mechanisms that explain how HDL offers protection against chronic heart disease are that HDL inhibits cellular uptake of LDL and serves as a carrier that removes cholesterol from the peripheral tissues and transports it back to the liver for catabolism and excretion
The ratio of total cholesterol and LDL (low density lipoprotein).
B.U.N. (Blood Urea Nitrogen)
The nitrogen component of urea, B.U.N. is the end product of protein metabolism and its concentration is influenced by the rate of excretion. Increases can be caused by excessive protein intake, kidney damage, certain drugs, low fluid intake, intestinal bleeding, exercise or heart failure. Decreased levels may be due to a poor diet, malabsorption, liver damage or low nitrogen intake.
Creatinine is the waste product of muscle metabolism. Its level is a reflection of the bodies muscle mass. Low levels are sometimes seen in kidney damage, protein starvation, liver disease or pregnancy. Elevated levels are sometimes seen in kidney disease due to the kidneys job of excreting creatinine, muscle degeneration, and some drugs involved in impairment of kidney function.
Uric acid is the end product of urine metabolism and is normally excreted through the urine. High levels are noted in gout, infections, kidney disease, alcoholism, high protein diets, and with toxemia in pregnancy. Low levels may be indicative of kidney disease, malabsorption, poor diet, liver damage or an overly acid kidney.
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